NEZIKIN (Heb. נְזִיקִין; "torts"), fourth order of the Mishnah according to the order given by Simeon b. Lakish (Shab. 31a), although according to another tradition (Tanḥuma in Num. R. 13:15), it is the sixth. Originally Nezikin was the name of the first tractate only (see below). Because of Simeon b. Lakish's homily applying to it the word yeshu'ot ("salvation") in Isaiah 33:6, it is so called in many rabbinic sources, including the Tosefta. Nezikin is devoted to civil law (except for matrimonial law, dealt with in the order nashim ), and the administration of justice and legal procedure, as well as penal law insofar as the subject does not appertain to some other part of the Mishnah. The tractate eduyyot was included in Nezikin because it contains "testimonies" most of which were given before the Sanhedrin of jabneh after the destruction of the Temple, and is consequently connected with the tractate sanhedrin . avodah zarah was placed in Nezikin because it deals with the halakhot of idolatry, some of which are given in Sanhedrin-Makkot, and also because it opens with prohibitions against trade with idolators, thus connecting it with the tractate Nezikin (bava kamma , Bava Meẓia , and bava batra ), which gives the laws of trade in general. The inclusion of the aggadic tractate Avot, which deals with moral maxims, is due to the fact that it contains an exceptional number of instructions to dayyanim , dealt with in Sanhedrin. Nezikin contains ten tractates, although at first there were only seven, the first three originally forming one tractate now divided into Bava Kamma, Bava Meẓia, and Bava   Batra (see Av. Zar. in mishnah Kaufmann and Cambridge, etc.). The name of the first tractate was then applied to the whole order. Sanhedrin and makkot were also originally one tractate (and are so in the Kaufmann and Parma Mishnah, in genizah fragments, and elsewhere), which contained 14 chapters; they were divided into two tractates, also apparently in Babylon, for reasons that are not yet sufficiently clear. Thus in the order Nezikin, too, the tractates were originally arranged according to the number of chapters in descending order. Nezikin has the following separate tractates: Bava Kamma, with 10 chapters; Bava Meẓia, 10; Bava Batra, 10; Sanhedrin, 11; Makkot, 3; Shevu'ot , 8; Eduyyot, 8; Avodah Zarah, 5; Avot, 5; and horayot , 3. In the Tosefta of Nezikin each of the three Bavot has 11 chapters; Sanhedrin, 14; Makkot, 4 (or 5); Shevu'ot, 6; Eduyyot, 3; Avodah Zarah, 9 (or 8); and Horayot, 2 chapters; there is no Tosefta to Avot. Eduyyot and Avot have no Gemara in either the Jerusalem or the Babylonian Talmud. The importance of nearly all the tractates in the sphere of practical halakhah led to an abundant development of these spheres in rabbinic literature. Especially comprehensive is the literature on the first three tractates and on Shevu'ot, about which innumerable studies and commentaries have been written, which have material discussed in the responsa of all periods, and which (together with ketubbot in the order Nashim) encompass the whole of Jewish civil law. English translations of the Mishnah: Danby (1933); Neusner (1988); English translation of the Tosefta: Neusner (2002); English translations of the TJ: Neusner (1984); English translations of the TB: Soncino (1935); Neusner (1984, 1990, 1992); a students' edition of part of TB Bava Meẓia, vocalized, with translation, commentary, and notes in English, appeared as part of the Talmud El-Am. -ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Geiger, Ha-Mikra ve-Targumav (1949), 124–26; S. Lieberman, in Tarbiz, 2 (1931), Suppl. 4; idem, Tosefta: Seder Nezikin (1988); idem, Tosefta ki-Feshutah, parts 9–10 (1988); Ch. Albeck, Shishah Sidrei Mishnah, 4 (1959), 57–63, 111–16, 163–68, 211–18, 461–67; L. Jacobs, Studies in Talmudic Logic and Methodology (1961), 132–35; Epstein, Tanna'im, 417–21; Epstein, Amoraim, 187–270, 279–87, 417; A. Weiss, Diyyunim u-Verurim be-Vava Kamma (1966), 10–16; Yerushalmi Nezikin, ed. E.S. Rosenthal (1983); Y. Sussmann, in: Meḥkerei Talmud, vol. 1 (1990), 55–133; Talmud Yerushalmi, with an introduction by Y. Sussmann (2001); S. Friedman, Talmud Arukh: BT Bava Mezi'a VI, 2 vols. (1990, 1996); C. Hezser, Form, Function, and Historical Significance of the Rabbinic Story in Yerushalmi Nezikin (1993), 362–77; D. Halivni, Mekorot u-Mesorot: Bava Kamma (1993); idem, Mekorot u-Mesorot: Bava Meẓia (2003); Synopse zum Talmud Yerushalmi, vol. 4, ed. P. Schäfer and H.J. Becker (1995); Mordekhai Sabato, Ketav-Yad Temani le-Massekhet Sanhedrin (Bavli) u-Mekomo bi-Masoret ha-Nusaḥ (1998). (David Joseph Bornstein / Stephen G. Wald (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nezikin — For Jewish law on damages, see Damages (Jewish law) Nezikin (Hebrew: נזיקין, Damages Neziqin) or Seder Nezikin (סדר נזיקין, The Order of Damages) is the fourth Order of the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). It deals largely with Jewish… …   Wikipedia

  • Ordre Nezikin — L’ordre Nezikin (hébreu: סדר נזיקין Seder Nezikin, « ordre des dommages/intérêts ») est le quatrième des six ordres de la Mishna. Il comprend 10 traités et a pour objet la loi pénale et civile juive ainsi que le système judiciaire juif …   Wikipédia en Français

  • AVOT NEZIKIN — (Heb. אֲבוֹת נְזִיקִין; lit. Fathers of Damage ), the classification of torts . Certain passages in the Pentateuch (Ex. 21–22) have been expounded in the Talmud to form the basis on which tortious liability in Jewish law can be classified. The… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • BAVA KAMMA — (Aram. בָּבָא קַמָּא), tractate of the Talmud, the first of the order Nezikin. Name Bava Kamma was originally not a separate tractate, but the first part of a larger tractate, whose name was identical with the name of the order. The title Bava… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • TALMUD, JERUSALEM — (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי), also called the Palestinian Talmud, Talmud di Venei Ma arava (The Talmud of the West), or Talmud de Ereẓ Yisrael. Like its better known eastern counterpart – the Babylonian Talmud (Bavli) – the Yerushalmi is an… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • TALMUD, BABYLONIAN — (Heb. תַּלְמוּד בַּבְלִי), a literary work of monumental proportions (5,894 folio pages in the standard printed editions), which draws upon the totality of the spiritual, intellectual, ethical, historical, and legal traditions produced in… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Exilarch — An exhibit depicting Exilarch Huna at the Beit Hatefutsot Exilarch (Hebrew: ראש גלות Rosh Galut, Aramaic: ריש גלותא Reish Galuta lit. head of the exile , Greek: Æchmalotarcha) refers to the leaders of the Diaspora Jewish community in Babylon… …   Wikipedia

  • Mishnah — Rabbinic Literature Talmudic literature Mishnah • Tosefta Jerusalem Talmud • Babylonian Talmud Minor tractates Halakhic Midrash Mekhilta de Rabbi Yishmael (Exodus) Mekhilta de Rabbi Shimon (Exodus) Sifra (Leviticus) Sifre (Numbers Deuteronomy) …   Wikipedia

  • Naso (parsha) — Naso or Nasso (נָשֹׂא Hebrew for lift up, the sixth word, and the first distinctive word, in the parshah) is the 35th weekly Torah portion (parshah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the second in the book of Numbers. It constitutes …   Wikipedia

  • Damages (Jewish law) — Part of a series on …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”